Category Archives: App. Div. 4th Dept.

Searching Cell Phones: Confirmation to get the Warrant

In People v. Hackett (4th Dept. 11/9/2018), the Fourth Department analyzed a cell phone search under the 2014 Supreme Court decision Riley v. California to find that officers may send a confirmatory text message to a defendant’s cell phone when they have been in undercover communication with him to ensure they have the proper defendant. This confirmatory text may then be used to support a valid search warrant of the defendant’s cell phone. Continue reading

The Importance of Jury Note Readings, as Shown by a Pro Se Defendant

In People v. Timmons (4th Dept. 10/5/18), the Fourth Department allowed for a reconstruction regarding whether the trial court did not provide adequate notice to defense counsel when it did not read out a jury note verbatim.

The defendant in this case was tried and convicted by a jury of Murder 2º.  He appealed to the Fourth Department, and it affirmed the conviction. However, the defendant filed a writ of error coram nobis, because he contended his appellate counsel failed to raise an issue on appeal that may have merit: a violation of CPL § 310.30 in regard to a note from the jury in its deliberations.

CPL 310.30 requires the jury to return to the courtroom after notice to both the People and counsel for the defendant and give instruction as the court deems proper. When there is a substantive note from the jury, the court must provide counsel with meaningful notice of the content of the note, and the court must provide a meaningful response to the jury. This means actual, specific content of the jurors’ request must be disclosed. The Court of Appeals has held that a trial court’s failure to read a jury’s note verbatim deprives counsel of the opportunity to analyze accurately the jury’s deliberations and frame intelligent suggestions for the court’s response.

The defendant here contended that the trial court failed to read the note from the jury verbatim, and the transcript shows that instead in the reading both in front of and outside the presence of the jury, omitted to read the jury’s request to have a read back of the medical examiner’s testimony, and to have that testimony read first.

The People contended that it was the transcript that was in fact incorrect, and that the trial judge did read verbatim the jury note. They relied upon an affidavit from the court reporter that was submitted in response to the defendant’s writ. The affidavit stated that a stenographic error may have resulted in a transcript that did not accurately reflect whether the court read the entire content of the note verbatim in open court prior to responding to the jury.

The Fourth Department held that the alleged error in the transcript of the court’s on the record reading of the note was subject to a reconstruction hearing because the trial judge is the final arbiter of the record certified to the appellate courts. Therefore, the case was reversed and remitted to the County Court for the reconstruction hearing. (JC)

 

Preserve, Preserve, Preserve – And Don’t Threaten Eyewitnesses

In People v. Larregui (4th Dept. 9/28/18), the Fourth Department did not review many of the claims that the defendant raised based upon the fact that they were not preserved for review. The one issue the court did review revolved around the fact that a witness testifying about an event about a month following the robbery at issue.

In this case, the defendant was convicted by a jury of Robbery in both the First and Second Degree, and Assault in the Second Degree.  The case arose from an incident in which two women posing as prostitutes lured a victim into ambush by three masked men, who assaulted him, held a gun to his head and stole $200 cash.

The defendant in this case made several contentions that the court knocked down for lack of preservation: (1) that the evidence was legally insufficient to support a conviction because there was not corroborative evidence for the accomplice testimony; (2) the guilty verdict was repugnant because one of her accomplices was acquitted on all counts of the indictment; and (3) that prosecutorial misconduct deprived her of a fair trial inasmuch as she failed to object to any of the alleged improprieties.

The court noted that in order to preserve issues for review there must be objections “specifically directed at the alleged error.” Based upon the fact that there are so many issues that were dismissed on the basis that they were not preserved for review, it is clear that the Fourth Department values highly the notion of need to preserve issues for review. If an issue is not directly objected to, then it is not considered to be preserved for appellate purposes.  None of the issues were reversed in the interest of justice.

One issue that the court directly addressed was that the defendant objected to the trial court’s allowance of an eyewitness to testify regarding an incident that took place a month following the alleged robbery. The eyewitness testified that the defendant came to the eyewitness’s home, tried to break down the door, and threatened the eyewitness with violence for talking to the police. While the court does note that the defendant preserved the issue for review, it nevertheless rejected the defendant’s contention because evidence of threats made by the defendant against one of the People’s eyewitnesses, despite being prior bad acts, is admissible on the issue of consciousness of guilt. The Fourth Department noted that this was not an abuse of discretion because the probative value outweighed the prejudicial effect.  (JC/LC)

When Deliberating Jurors Ask a Question, Answer It

When a jury asks clarifying questions of the court when deliberating, the court must meaningfully answer the question, without prejudicing the defendant. In People v. Wood (4th Dept. 7/25/2018), the Fourth Department held that a supplemental instruction provided by the court in response to a jury question constituted an abuse of discretion.

The defendant in this case was convicted by a jury verdict of two counts of CPW 2º and one count of Menacing 2º.  (The first count of CPW 2º charged possession outside the home of a loaded firearm.  The second count of the same crime charged possession with intent to use it against another.)

This case arose from a breakfast at a restaurant, which the defendant deemed cost too much and complained. Weeks later, he returned to the restaurant with a loaded gun, pointing it at employees and demanding sexual favors in exchange for the cost of breakfast. He was asked to leave and did so, and was then apprehended nearby by police. At trial, the defendant testified that the gun was a war antique of his grandfather’s and he was transporting it to another individual, keeping it on his person so that it was not stolen. The defendant claimed that he entered the restaurant to make amends with the complainant after his initial outburst. In his version of events, she insulted him, so he insulted her back and left, never displaying the weapon.

During juror deliberations, the jury sent a note requesting clarification on the terms “intent” and “unlawfully.” Continue reading

The Importance of Juror Conduct: How Not Following Instructions Can Impact A Post-Trial Verdict

When jurors communicate with third parties about the case in which they are hearing, it can adversely impact the trial by prejudicing the defendant. In People v. Neulander (4th Dept. 6/29/2018), one juror’s misconduct impacted the defendant’s rights and resulted in a new trial.

The defendant in this case was convicted by a jury of Murder 2º of his wife and Tampering with Physical Evidence.

The defendant contended that his conviction should be set aside on grounds of juror misconduct. Under CPL 330.30(2), the verdict may be set aside for juror misconduct if the misconduct may have affected a substantial right of the defendant, and it was not known to the defendant prior to the verdict. The defendant has the burden of proving by a preponderance of the evidence every fact essential to support the motion.

The defendant established during his CPL 330.30(2) hearing that a juror engaged in text messaging with third parties about the trial, including receiving a text from her father saying: Continue reading